Category Archives: Identity

Programmatically grant admin consent to a service principal

Most articles and e.g. az module commands allow you to do an admin consent on an application object.

However, Service Principals have the same option in the Azure Portal:

In my scenario I have control over both the hosting tenant of this multi-tenant app registration, so I could use the requiredResourceAccess property to read all Oauth2permissiongrants and approleAssignments from the source app registration to re-apply it to the service principal in the consuming tenant.

The result is similar to consenting through the admin portal but does not require user interaction / is fully headless, ideal for when you’re adding scopes/roles to an application and don’t want to have to do a manual reconsent in all managed tenants.

Here’s the code to to programmatic admin consent:

It requires DelegatedPermissionGrant.ReadWrite.All and AppRoleAssignment.ReadWrite.All graph permissions for the calling principal (user or application).

If you don’t have access to the source tenant (e.g. multi tenant), you can also simply create a hashtable with the required permissions (manual definition or export from the application manifest).

Dynamic membership rule for Teams Room accounts

Teams Room accounts are usually excluded from conditional access. To do so, they have to be in a security group, which of course we don’t want to do manually.

Most companies choose to use a naming standard and simply use that as a rule to create an exclusion group. This is easy to circumvent, I can create a guest user with the right name et voila zero CA policies!

A better way is to identify the accounts based on their assigned licenses, e.g. Teams Rooms Basic (6af4b3d6-14bb-4a2a-960c-6c902aad34f3). This, however, is not supported as an Azure AD group membership rule as this is stored in the AssignedLicenses property which will throw an “Unsupported Property” error.

The assignedPlans property however, does not contain unique plans. E.g. Teams1 is also used in most other licenses. Same goes with mcomeetadv and whiteboard_plan3, this means we can’t use MS’s example for license-based rules, but we CAN compare all at once (a full / all match, instead of any).

The following rule only matches users that ONLY have TEAMS1, MCOMEETADV and WHITEBOARD_PLAN3:

(user.assignedPlans -all (assignedPlan.servicePlanId -in ["3e26ee1f-8a5f-4d52-aee2-b81ce45c8f40","57ff2da0-773e-42df-b2af-ffb7a2317929","4a51bca5-1eff-43f5-878c-177680f191af"] -and assignedPlan.capabilityStatus -eq "Enabled")) -and
not (user.assignedPlans -all (assignedPlan.servicePlanId -eq ""))

Here’s another example that would match users with either MS Teams Basic or MS Teams Pro:

((user.assignedPlans -all (assignedPlan.servicePlanId -in ["3e26ee1f-8a5f-4d52-aee2-b81ce45c8f40","57ff2da0-773e-42df-b2af-ffb7a2317929","4a51bca5-1eff-43f5-878c-177680f191af"] -and assignedPlan.capabilityStatus -eq "Enabled")) -or 
(user.assignedPlans -all (assignedPlan.servicePlanId -in ["41781fb2-bc02-4b7c-bd55-b576c07bb09d","3e26ee1f-8a5f-4d52-aee2-b81ce45c8f40","4828c8ec-dc2e-4779-b502-87ac9ce28ab7","c1ec4a95-1f05-45b3-a911-aa3fa01094f5","57ff2da0-773e-42df-b2af-ffb7a2317929","0feaeb32-d00e-4d66-bd5a-43b5b83db82c","4a51bca5-1eff-43f5-878c-177680f191af","92c6b761-01de-457a-9dd9-793a975238f7"] -and assignedPlan.capabilityStatus -eq "Enabled")))
not (user.assignedPlans -all (assignedPlan.servicePlanId -eq ""))

if you want to do something similar for other licenses, here are the options/combinations:

Powershell Cert based authentication against the Graph API using a certificate from Keyvault

In automation scenarios it is common to use a service principal (app based) to work with the Graph API, or in my example, with PNP PowerShell against SharePoint (but both scenario’s work the same).

First, you’d need a client certificate, e.g. like this:

$folder = "c:\users\JosLieben\Desktop"
$cert=New-SelfSignedCertificate -Subject "CN=JOS" -CertStoreLocation "Cert:\CurrentUser\My"  -KeyExportPolicy Exportable -KeySpec Signature -HashAlgorithm "SHA256" -Provider "Microsoft Enhanced RSA and AES Cryptographic Provider"
Export-Certificate -Cert $cert -FilePath "$folder\jos.cer" 
Export-PfxCertificate -Password (ConvertTo-SecureString $clientCertPwd -AsPlainText -Force) -Cert $cert -FilePath "$folder\jos.pfx"

You’d then upload the .cer file as a certificate on your service principal to let Azure AD recognize your cert as a valid ‘password’ for your app registration.

Next you’d upload your .pfx file into Keyvault.

Finally, you can use Powershell to construct an access token for a given scope:

$tenantId = "YOURTENANTID"
$clientId = "YOURCLIENTID"
$scope = "" #or, e.g. https://$($tenantName) openid profile offline_access
$secret = Get-AzKeyVaultSecret -VaultName "YOURKEYVAULTNAME" -Name cippCert -AsPlainText
$clientCert = New-Object System.Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Certificate2 -ArgumentList @([Convert]::FromBase64String($secret),"",[System.Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509KeyStorageFlags]::Exportable)

$header = @{
    alg = "RS256"
    typ = "JWT"
    x5t = [System.Convert]::ToBase64String(($clientCert.GetCertHash()))
} | ConvertTo-Json -Compress

$claimsPayload = @{
    aud = "$tenantId/oauth2/token"
    exp = [math]::Round(((New-TimeSpan -Start ((Get-Date "1970-01-01T00:00:00Z" ).ToUniversalTime()) -End (Get-Date).ToUniversalTime().AddMinutes(2)).TotalSeconds),0)
    iss = $clientId
    jti = (New-Guid).Guid
    nbf = [math]::Round(((New-TimeSpan -Start ((Get-Date "1970-01-01T00:00:00Z" ).ToUniversalTime()) -End ((Get-Date).ToUniversalTime())).TotalSeconds),0)
    sub = $clientId
} | ConvertTo-Json -Compress

$headerjsonbase64 = [Convert]::ToBase64String([System.Text.Encoding]::UTF8.GetBytes($header)).Split('=')[0].Replace('+', '-').Replace('/', '_')
$claimsPayloadjsonbase64 = [Convert]::ToBase64String([System.Text.Encoding]::UTF8.GetBytes($claimsPayload)).Split('=')[0].Replace('+', '-').Replace('/', '_')

$preJwt = $headerjsonbase64 + "." + $claimsPayloadjsonbase64
$toSign = [System.Text.Encoding]::UTF8.GetBytes($preJwt)
$privateKey = $clientCert.PrivateKey
$alg = [Security.Cryptography.HashAlgorithmName]::SHA256
$padding = [Security.Cryptography.RSASignaturePadding]::Pkcs1
$signature = [Convert]::ToBase64String($privateKey.SignData($toSign,$alg,$padding)) -replace '\+','-' -replace '/','_' -replace '='

$jwt = $headerjsonbase64 + "." + $claimsPayloadjsonbase64 + "." + $signature

$Authbody = @{
    'tenant' = $tenantId
    'scope' = $scope
    'client_assertion_type' = 'urn:ietf:params:oauth:client-assertion-type:jwt-bearer'
    'client_id'     = $clientId
    'grant_type'    = 'client_credentials'
    'client_assertion' = $jwt

$accessToken = (Invoke-RestMethod -Method post -Uri "$($tenantid)/oauth2/v2.0/token" -Body $Authbody -ErrorAction Stop).accesstoken

The token can then be used to used to call Graph. And an example that shows how to use a sharepoint scoped token for the Sharepoint PNP PowerShell moddule:

#use scope: https://$($tenantName)

connect-PnPOnline -Url "https://$($tenantName)" -AccessToken $accessToken -ReturnConnection

Guest User Last Sign-in date time in Azure Active Directory and automatic cleanup

Azure AD’s sign in logs also only go back 30 days, which makes it highly recommended to stream Azure AD’s sign in logs to a Log Analytics workspace (Azure Monitor). You just need one single P1 license in your tenant to be able to enable this.

However, even if you don’t stream your sign in logs, Microsoft does keep track of when an account last signed in.

My script gets the last sign in data of all guest accounts in your tenant, without any dependencies other than the Az PS module.

If a guest user has never signed in, the creationDate is used to determine inactivity. Otherwise either the last interactive or last non interactive sign in is used (whichever is most recent).

Additionally, the script can also be configured to automatically clean up any guest accounts that have been inactive for a given number of days by using the -removeInactiveGuests switch.

Even in large environments, processing only takes a few minutes at most.


Download the script from my Gitlab here:


Microsoft started using these properties in april 2020, so accounts active before that will seem like they have never been active.


This script supports running non-interactive as a runbook in Azure Automation if you supply the -nonInteractive switch. Before this will work, you’ll have to enable Managed Identity on your automation account and run a small script to assign graph permissions to the Managed Identity: AuditLog.Read.All and Organization.Read.All


If you wish, you can also let the script mail you a report in CSV format. Add the Mail.Send graph permissions like you did with device permissions and give the MailFrom and MailTo parameters a value.


As always this script is provided as-is and should be reviewed and then used at your own risk.

Inviting an external user to a PowerApp programmatically

Another week, another use case for Managed Identities in Automation Accounts!

The scenario today concerns a PowerApp and connected resources that should be shared with external identities, automatically of course. For each user this requires a guest account in the host / resource tenant, and a license. The license can be applied in the home tenant of the guest, or in your tenant.

Key points:

  1. Runbook that invites a user and adds the resulting guest account to a security group
  2. Security group gives access to the PowerApp and underlying (SpO) resources, and uses Group Based Licensing to license the guest for PowerApps and Sharepoint Online
  3. Logic App that is triggered by the PowerApp (trigger on create item in a sharepoint list), and starts the runbook
  4. When the invited user (guest) redeems the invitation, they are directed to a Sharepoint page first so Sharepoint syncs their profile. Otherwise, the PowerApp will not have access to any lists in Sharepoint Online as Guests are not synced to SpO until they access SpO directly.

I may demo the PowerApp, Logic App and Sharepoint lists at some point, but the main thing I wanted to share today is the Azure Runbook that creates the Guest invitation and adds the Guest to a security group using the Managed Identity of the Automation account, instead of service accounts or other pre-2021 solutions: